The MMIWG movement was first catalyzed by Indigenous women protesting man camps.
Man camps are temporary housing units built by extractive industries, such as fossil fuels, typically for non-Indigenous, non-local workers in rural areas bordering on or near Indian reservations. Man camps often span the colonial borders of the United States and Canada.
Nearby Indigenous communities or border towns experience increased incidences of violence, robberies, sexual assault, and human trafficking. Some border towns near man camps have documented a 30% increase in human trafficking and sexual assaults four times the U.S. national average. 
Still, violence against MMIWG did not originate with extractive fuel industries. It is a legacy of colonialism such as land dispossession, cultural assimilation, and forced relocation.
 LeMay, Genevieve M. (2018) “The Cycles of Violence Against Native Women: An Analysis of Colonialism, Historical Legislation and the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013,” PSU McNair Scholars Online Journal: Vol. 12: Iss. 1, Article 1. DOI 10.15760/mcnair.2018.1